We're at the end of 2019's fourth quarter, and it's been a year of ups and downs. While your business has been booming because you've paid attention to much of its integral needs, the upkeep of your business property itself is something you might have deprioritized. However, we don't blame you -- roofing maintenance and observation isn't something you must focus on during your daily operations.
Then again, a once-or-twice commercial roofing inspection is especially important and helpful in many ways. And you won't have to do it; many reputable Clinton Township roofers with in-depth experience can perform these checks for you conveniently. At this point, you wish you had done a commercial roof audit to avoid unexpected expenses the following year. Well, it isn't too late to decide.
If you're seeing cracks, curling, splits, or moss growth on your commercial property asphalt shingle roof, its most definitely time to have it replaced. However, this only applies to commercial properties that use these roofing materials. Most commercial roofs use low-slope seamed roofing materials and steel. Summit Commercial Roofing has a great list of symptoms that indicate you need a new steel roof.
Steel Commercial Roofs
Steel is a popular option for many commercial buildings due to its long-term durability. Whether you have standing seam metal roofing or exposed fasteners on your corrugated metal roofing, here are some common signs that it’s time for commercial roofers to remove and replace your metal roof:
- Tears in the metal surface
- Missing or damaged flashing
- Loose or missing fasteners
- Bent, warped or loose metal sheets
Each of these signs point to a replacement job. While some metal roofing can be patched, an entire replacement can be a better way to ensure your roof is completely protected from water, corrosion and other damage. The paint of your older metal roof sheets can also fade, which makes a patch job look particularly out of place. (Continue Reading)
Now, the signs mentioned above mostly tackle repair or replacement symptoms only. However, it does not tell you which type of roofing material is best to use for a long-lasting commercial roof. This information is especially important for Clinton Township commercial property owners who want to have a long-lasting replacement to their formerly efficient roofing material.
Healthcare Business Today has a great post about which type of commercial roofing material is the best for your property. It explains which details you should consider and the types of roofing material available. Read more below.
Top Considerations for a Commercial Roof
When you’re installing a commercial roof, there are a number of things that you need to take into consideration. These are the most important things you need to think about.
What is the building going to be used for? Is it a warehouse where inventory will be stored? Is it going to be a public space?
These are important questions to ask because a public space will need insulation, while a warehouse will require resistance over leaks.
The location of the building will have a big impact on the commercial roof that’s best for your project. You could be in a location that’s exposed to extreme weather conditions. There may be building codes in your location to make sure that the structure is sound.
Will the Business Grow?
Are you working with a business that plans to grow in the next few years? You want to make sure that you have a roof that will grow with it. You don’t want to put the business in a position where it has to replace the entire roof again for a building expansion. (Continue Reading)
Lastly, make sure you're working with greatly-reliable roofers in your area. If you have yet to find one, you can count on Miller's Home Improvement for all your roofing needs. With our decades of experience in the industry and a great number of satisfied residential and commercial property clients, we only guarantee the most exceptional results for any project. Contact us today to learn more about what we can do for you.
Rubber roofs or ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM) roofs are still one of the best commercial roofing materials in use in today's industry. Most commercial property owners find it affordable and sustainable with its 20-30 year average lifespan. As you are planning to replace your commercial roof soon, is it still a good idea to use it this 2020?
As your Clinton Township MI roofers with decades-long experience in commercial roofing, we can definitely confirm that rubber roofs still remain one of the best options for your property. However, keep in mind they are not perfect roofing materials -- they still have flaws that property owner need to accept. With imperfections on the side, making EPDM your new commercial roof is definitely an excellent choice.
EPDM rubber roofs can withstand at least two to three hailstorms. In addition, effective seam applications guarantee no leaks and an airtight seal that guarantees exceptional property insulation. Permaroof UK has a great list of advantages of today's new EPDM (namely from Firestone) that makes it an excellent choice for many commercial properties.
Long Term Solution – 50 years Plus life expectancy
Ethylene Propylene Diene Monomer (EPDM) membranes are particularly suitable for the sort of extreme conditions commonly found in flat roof applications, making EPDM the most reliable and durable material solution for your flat roof.
The first Firestone rubber EPDM roofs were laid in the States by Firestone in the 1980’s and are still protecting these roofs today. Well known buildings rely on their EPDM rubber roofing such as Honda factories, McClaren, Coca - Cola, Kraft, Nike, Burj al Arab, schools, shopping centres, railway stations, hospitals and hundreds of thousands more commercial and residential properties. Over 1.5 billion square metres of material installed worldwide!
EPDM roofing material is a black colour. EPDM synthetic rubber flat roofing looks natural and doesn’t easily show dirt. One of EPDM roof advantages is that it does not support the growth of moss unlike traditional felt systems – no stone chippings or solar reflective paint required! A nice, smooth, clean finish that customers just love.
A Tradition of Quality
From research and development through product manufacturing, Firestone Building Products follows stringent quality control guidelines to ensure each component of a Firestone Roofing or Lining System meets or exceeds industry standards.
Plants operate with state-of-the-art equipment to offer quality roofing and lining systems that perform to last. All these plants have achieved ISO 9001 and ISO 14001 certification, which are a testimony of the company's commitment to quality and environmental management systems. (Continued)
As we mentioned earlier, we've seen many EPDM roofs fail due to many shortcomings and limitations it has. Rubber roofs aren't the strongest roofing materials in its category, but it is capable of delivering exceptional quality for its price.
However, all property owners must know what to expect from EPDM roofs and how to make sure they're getting quality results by maximising the material's capabilities. Roofing Calculator has a great post about this -- read an excerpt below.
1. Unprofessional Contractors = Poor Roof Installation
Many contractors praise and install the EPDM roofing system, because manufacturers that make this material do not require roofers to be certified or trained in order to purchase and install it.
Furthermore, rubber roofs are CHEAP. There are no special tools, or equipment required for installation. Some $1 paint brushes and a $15 hand-roller is all that you or a roofer would really need to get going.
EPDM is also easily accessible. Anybody can get all materials and accessories at a local home improvement store. You also don’t need to purchase very large quantities, (as you would for most other materials).
All of the above factors combined with eager cooperation on the part of distributors, promoting this roof at “special seminars”, creates a situation where poorly trained contractors put up a “rubber roofing” sticker on their trucks, and set out to get some business.
Homeowners, who are unaware of this situation, usually believe that they are dealing with qualified professional contractors. Although, these roofers may know how to shingle a roof and may even have good references, chances are that their expertise with a single ply membrane is limited, or non-existent. (Read More)
As the article above mentioned, it pays to have a licensed and greatly-experienced roofing contractor to help you with your EPDM roofing installations. In doing so, you extend the lifespan, durability, and long-term performance of your roofing material. If you have yet to find a reliable roofer, you can count on us at Miller's Home Improvements. Contact us today to learn more all about what we can do for you!
Imagine you're breezing through the spring after the most brutal winter in history. You consider it a miracle your roof hasn't fallen over your head even during the first rains of summer. Unfortunately, a strong rainstorm just did a number enough to poke a hole through your roof. Now, you need to repair a small patch of roofing material, and you're scared of the roof repair costs you'll be facing.
Fortunately, roof repair costs in Clinton Township MI are similar as the US average costs in both materials and labor. According to Fixr.com, roof repair costs for leaks in the area have whole-figure approximate. However, just like all estimates, take this with a grain of salt when budgeting for the materials and services.
How Much Will We Pay for Roof Repair Costs for Leaks?
Extent of damage
If your roof is too badly damaged, it may be useless to try to spot-repair the leaks and other issues. To ensure the structural safety of your home and prevent the need for additional repairs, it can be simpler to just replace the entire roof. The replacement of the roof costs an average of $6000.
A roofing contractor will usually charge around $3 per square foot for a leak repair project, or $45-$75 per hour. Roof leak repairs usually take one to two days (8-16 labor hours - $360-$1200) to complete.
Material costs are sometimes included in the package quote you receive from your roofer, but they can be charged separately as well. To repair a 10'x10' area, average material costs are as follows: (See materials chart here)
It's possible the storm was too severe and your roof suffered major damages. As a result, you're not considering roof repair costs estimates anymore. You'll want to know how much does a roof replacement cost in Clinton Township MI.
If you've found great and exemplary roofers in Clinton Township MI, you'll definitely save plenty of money in both roof repair costs and replacements. However, if you're still looking around for dependable roofers you can work with, check out Thumbtack's estimates to help you make an accurate roof replacement budget.
How Much Does It Cost to Replace My Entire Roof?
National average prices for a roof replacement can range from $260 to $700 per square depending on roofing material used. The total costs for roof replacement will vary depending on size and roof type.
If your old roof simply needs repair, you may be able to have someone help you out for as low as $150 to $350 for asphalt shingle repair, or $350 to $1000 for tile and metal roof repair. Shingles are sold in bundles, and can range from $60 to $100 for asphalt, and $400 to $1500 for copper. Installed roofing is measured and priced in "squares," or 100 square foot blocks. (Continued)
Nowadays, many roofers are touting roof recovery as a better solution than roof replacement. It's faster and more affordable. However, some unscrupulous roofers (who might not even do the work right) claim all roof types in any condition can benefit from a fast and affordable roof recovery.
Before you decide on having roof recovery, we highly recommend you read Best Roofing's great post on when to use roof recovery and replacement below.
When Should I Have My Roof Recovered or Replaced?
The performance of the membrane in a roof recover option will be only as good as the substrate. Therefore roof recover should never be undertaken where the existing roof, insulation or deck is known to be unsound.
A roof recover should not be done over an existing wet roof or roof containing wet insulation. While surface moisture can be easily detected and dried, the detection of moisture in the insulation will require the use of non-destructive testing such as infrared thermography. Wet areas should be replaced with dry insulation before a roof recover is carried out. The cost of such replacement should be included in the contractor’s price. If the amount of wet insulation is excessive, it may be cost effective to replace the whole roof. (Continued)
If you have yet to find a reliable roofer in Clinton Township MI, you can count on Miller's Home Improvement to help you with your roof repair needs. Whether it's your residential or commercial property roof that requires professional services, you can count on us. Learn more today!
Perhaps you’ve considered the idea of a flat roof for your St Clair Shores home. Or maybe not. Whichever the case, we’re here to educate you about a flat roof.
What are great reasons to install a flat roof? Why not attempt this roofing project? If you’re in the process of planning a new home or considering a roof replacement, this guide is for you.
To dive deeper into the topic of residential flat roofs, we’ll tackle the following:
And remember, you may need the help of experienced commercial roofing professionals in Clinton Township MI to obtain all the advantages flat roofs provide properties.
A flat roof construction has its share of pros and cons. These can range from affordability, the chance to build a home extension conveniently, safety, drainage issues, and more. Check them out below.
“Are flat roofs cheaper?” We answer that with a big yes. Flat roofs are affordable in two ways. First, the materials and labor cost less. Contractors worth with large sheets and installing them won’t take a lot of time. Pitched roofs require additional support and more materials.
Secondly, flat roofs offer extra space at the top. You can use the area to store equipment or have another bedroom. A pitched roof won’t allow for more space, which means you spend on a renovation.
If you really need to build an extension, flat roofs make this possible. Flat roofs can be your go-to option for a home extension. Since they’re easy to work with, you complete your extension project in less time.
While a flat roof extension seems like a simple task, never do it on your own. Seek the help of a professional roofing contractor.
As we mentioned, you can maximize the area right above your flat roof. There are a ton of ideas to take advantage of with flat roofs.
An eco-friendly move would be to grow a garden on your flat roof. Flat roof gardens cool down the rooms beneath them, thereby helping save energy. Another option would be to use the rooftop space as a dining area. How about installing solar panels? Ahh, those are also great!
Yes, going up a flat roof to maintain it presents less risk of falling off. To help people move around quickly on a flat roof, you may build a parapet wall. Ask your roofing contractor to recommend a flat roof material that holds up to foot traffic. A durable material is less likely to get damaged even if you constantly walk on it.
Speaking of the advantages and disadvantages of flat structure, don’t forget that it makes your home look modern.
But the best part is that a flat roof suits any landscaping style or theme. It complements any exterior home decor -- modern or ancient. Nowadays, flat roofs are becoming more of a trend. All you need is a catalog of design ideas to inspire you.
Two weeks ago, a potential homeowner wanted our advice. He asked, “Should I buy a house with a flat roof? Is it worth it?” We told him that of course, a home with a flat roof is worth the investment.
However, we also explained that a flat roof could leak if it’s poorly built and maintained. Quality workmanship ensures that a flat roof is angled correctly to facilitate proper water runoff. Also, you must schedule regular inspections to catch damage early on.
Unfortunately, flat roofs receive more sunlight during the day because of their shape (which is flat). Pitched roofs with varying forms, on the other hand, get less exposure due to their angles.
This drawback should not stop you from getting a flat roof. One practical thing you can do to protect your roof from the sun’s heat is by applying reflective roof coatings.
Done checking out the advantages and disadvantages of flat structure? Great. Now, let’s find out what flat roofing systems you can install on your home. Perhaps you also want to replace an old roof.
While we include this flat roof on this list, it’s no longer the most popular material. In the past, it used to be. The most significant advantage of a flat concrete roof is its resistance to high winds. The disadvantages of flat concrete roof include the need for extra support and problems with chipping and fading.
A torch down roof is also termed “modified bitumen” (buy-too-men). Installing this material requires the use of heat, which could cause potential fire hazards if care isn’t taken. This is why you must hire a qualified company to install a torch down roof. This roof performs well in cold weather. It also helps lower your energy bills.
An EPDM roof is an environmentally-friendly choice and made from synthetic rubber. It’s also one of the most affordable flat roofing systems you’ll come across. To apply this roof, you’ll only need an adhesive. The process is fast and easy -- a plus for homeowners who want fewer disruptions.
While most commercial property owners use an EPDM roof, its benefits hold true for residential property owners as well.
TPO roofing systems are well-praised for their ability to resist dirt and algae build up. If you want an energy-efficient material that keeps your home cooler, choose TPO.
This concludes our post about the advantages and disadvantages of flat structure. Put them in mind before starting your roofing project. Whatever your decision may be, you need the expert insight of a professional roofing contractor -- preferably one from St Clair Shores MI. Always go local.
Here at Miller’s Home Improvement, we specialize in various types of roofs and provide complete roofing services -- from installations to repairs to roof damage insurance claims. Call us at 248-266-8773 to LEARN MORE and request a FREE QUOTE!
Most commercial property owners and contractors prefer modern flat roof coverings for any project. True enough, these materials are effective against hail, rain, and snowstorms yet remain affordable and easy to maintain. However, they'll require the expert installations of Clinton Township MI roofers with long-term experience in installing roofs.
However, given the heated summers and cold winters of St Clair Shores, property owners will want only the best flat roofing material. If you have yet to decide on which roofing material to use for your property, then after reading this post, you'll know more about:
These materials are the staples of commercial flat roof systems.
In addition, manufacturers make these flat roof coverings in an artificial manner. For example, they make rubber or EPDM flat roof from recycled tires and other rubber materials. Then, they reinforce them with sawdust and slate dust.
Next, manufacturers distribute single-ply membranes in tightly-bound rolls in batches because most roofs require multiple rolls to cover the entire roof. In addition, each roof requires overlaps to create a watertight seal that prevents any possible leakage.
However, rubber roofs are only one of the single-ply membranes you can use for your property. Here are some more of them.
As we mentioned earlier, ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM) flat roof coverings uses recycled rubber, slate, and sawdust. Manufacturers mix these materials. Then, they flatten the dried substance and roll them into flat sheets centimeters high.
Many trustworthy roofing contractors and property owners find EPDM roofs a practical flat roofing solution because it is affordable. In fact, it only costs $0.4 per square foot. If you do the math, you'll spend about $400 on an EPDM roof square.
However, EPDM complies with ASTM standards requiring all EPDM roofs to withstand hailstorms and provide adequate protection for properties with a lifespan of 20-30 years.
Thermoplastic polyolefin (TPO) is the next-generation EPDM. However, these flat roof coverings become more expensive than EPDM due to its upgrades.
Manufacturers use an EPDM base to produce TPO. However, instead of diene, sawdust and slate dust, manufacturers use talc, cabon filler, and fiberglass to reinforce the material. Therefore, TPO has a stronger resistance and durability if you compare them with EPDM roofs.
However, it costs about $5-$6 per square foot of a TPO roof and it has the same lifespan as EPDM roofs. Contrarily, it has a brighter color (being white than the flat black color of EPDM) and better UV reflective capabilities than EPDM roofs.
Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) is the same material that pipe manufacturers use in their products. True enough, as flat roof coverings, they perform extremely well.
Contractors consider PVC flat roof coverings as the strongest of all single-ply roofing membranes. In addition, it comes in different colors to complement the aesthetic of the commercial property.
An individual PVC flat roof can withstand multiple hailstorms. In addition, it can carry heavy equipment. PVC roofs have the capacity to carry up to 300 pounds per inch (PPI), which means it can house heavy material stacking or multiple rows of split-type inverter HVACs
Despite its strength, PVC still has a limited lifespan of 20-35 years. However, it also has the highest flat roof materials prices at $8-$10 per square foot.
Using tar and gravel to cake and design sandwiched waterproofing materials to function as flat roof coverings is the traditional way to go about flat roofing. In fact, almost any commercial flat roofer has experience making built-up roofing.
These waterproof materials are thick layers of roofing felt, tarpaulin, and in some cases fiberglass membranes. Then, contractors will use tar to cake them together and create an airtight seal. Despite its strength and capacity, BUR roofs are quite affordable with a $2-$7 cost per square foot.
However, the smell of tar will induce nausea and headaches. This may prompt some property owners to evacuate tenants or anyone living in the property until the smell disappears.
BUR roofs last for 40-50 years.
If you can find a St Clair Shores roofing contractor with mastic asphalt installation qualifications, then don't miss out on having the strongest of all flat roof coverings. True enough, mastic asphalt can be expensive because of the special equipment and materials for flat roofs construction. However, your investment guarantees a 50-plus year lifespan for your roof.
In addition, mastic asphalt roofs can withstand multiple hailstorms and is a precursor for commercial property rooftop parks or bars. Most hotels use this roofing material to build rooftop decks and swimming pools too.
Aside from EPDM, asphalt rolled roofing is another affordable roofing material for St Clair Shores property owners. A square foot of roofing felt or asphalt rolled roof costs about $1-$2, which brings a square to about $1,000-$2,000.
However, mineral felt roofs have a very short lifespan of 15-25 years. Therefore, EPDM roofs are a better investment option than asphalt rolled roof membranes.
This roofing material is a cross between built-up roofing and asphalt rolled flat roof coverings. Manufacturers use multiple sheets of waterproofing material. Then, they cake them together with mineral, asphalt, and strong fillers such as talc. Lastly, they distribute these materials in huge rolls.
Unlike tar and gravel roofs, contractors need not to use tar to install a modified bitumen flat roof. Instead, they will use a heat-welder or torch to melt the material to the roof itself. The melting process guarantees an airtight seal that prevents leaks.
Modified bitumen roofs can last for 30-40 years.
These flat roof coverings are the most aesthetically pleasing of all. Most contractors recommend having a mastic asphalt, concrete slab, or waterproof felt base before installing green roofs.
The usual installation process of green roofs involves the creation of the mastic asphalt or concrete slab base. Then, they will install layers of waterproof felt while constructing the downspouts where soil moisture will travel. Lastly, they will fill the gaps with soil and finally plant the seeds of foliage and vegetation to grow in the gardens.
Therefore, you can estimate that green roofs are extremely expensive and laborious to construct. On the contrary, you will receive great local tax incentives as well as a truly pleasing and beautiful commercial roof.
Commercial properties need only the best flat roof coverings. Therefore, using any of these materials will suit their needs.
However, be mindful that some long-lasting roofing materials make better investments than short-term but affordable flat roof coverings. In addition, make sure to work only with trusted roofing contractors to maximize the lifespan and durability of your roofing materials.
In case you haven't found the best one yet, you can place your trust with Miller's Home Improvement. We are a commercial and residential roofing contractor with over 30 years of experience installing EPDM, TPO, and modified bitumen roofs. Call us today for all your roofing needs!
If you’re deciding what roofing material to install for your facility, you’d probably ask yourself, “Why are flat roofs common on commercial buildings?”
Try to look around you. You’ll notice that malls, apartment buildings, colleges, and hotels have flat roofs. Maybe you’re guessing that cost-effectiveness is the reason. You’re correct, but it’s not the only one.
Read this blog post to learn more. The first part discusses the significance of flat roofing. Next, we’ll tackle 5 commercial roofing types. Lastly, we'll talk about why working with roofing contractors in Clinton Township MI guarantees the best outcome for any flat roof service.
First of all, building owners prefer flat roofs because they’re cheaper. Basically, roofing contractors use fewer materials for installation. The installation process itself also requires less time as contractors work on a smaller surface area.
Contractors on sloped roofs work on a complex design. Because of that, they charge more for their labor. Maintenance also costs less since roofers can easily walk on a flat surface versus a sloped one.
Businesses use HVAC systems and would rather avoid keeping them on the ground. Placing these units where random people pass by makes them prone to vandalism and destruction.
Flat roofing systems offer additional space to accommodate HVAC. Extra spaces are also used for solar panels. Need a relaxing place to hold your meetings? How about a rooftop garden? Flat roofs make these possible.
It’s not practical for buildings to use sloped roofing systems. This is because of building code height limits in different locations. As a commercial building owner, it only makes sense to make the most out of square footage.
We’ve already answered the question why are flat roofs common on commercial buildings. Now, let’s explore common flat roofing materials. As a business owner or property owner, you should know the benefits of each type.
A single-ply membrane, EPDM is a common flat roofing choice. It is known for its affordability. EPDM is also a durable material as it doesn’t easily acquire scratches. When it leaks, contractors find EPDM simple to repair.
In the past, black was the only available EPDM color. But today, you’ll see white EPDM. It comes in a variety of thicknesses. Typical options are 45 Mil, 60 Mil, and 90 Mil.
Regardless of the geometric configuration of your roof, you can still install EPDM. Got a complicated roofing project? No problem! Contractors have no difficulty with EPDM.
This flat roofing material is the new kid on the block. Some people may doubt the effectiveness of TPO because it’s new. But because of recent advancements in the roofing industry, TPO improved.
If you plan to save on energy, TPO is an energy-efficient material. Thanks to its light-colored surface, it reflects sunlight. Whether you live in Michigan or elsewhere, you save on cooling costs with TPO.
When it comes to aesthetics, you’ll be pleased to know that TPO comes in various colors. No matter the look of your building, TPO has a color for you. Now that’s one superb flat roof.
Bitumen roofing is an ideal choice for commercial buildings because it lasts longer. It has a proven track record which is why smart investors trust it.
Modified bitumen is also called “torch-down” roofing because of the method in which it’s installed. The sheet is torched town onto a fiberglass base so that both layers adhere. This technique ensures that the roof stays durable.
Perhaps a notable feature of modified bitumen is its ability to expand and contract. Its flexibility makes it resistant to cracks - a common issue among flat commercial roofing systems.
Now here’s a flat roofing type that has been around since the 1960s: PVC. Building owners who care about the planet choose PVC. You can call this roof a “green roofing” option because it doesn’t harm the environment.
PVC roofing reflects 65% of the sun’s heat and absorbs only 35% of it. In fact, some manufacturers have designed their PVC products that reflect up to 80% of heat.
Also, PVC lasts up to 30 years. The best part is that it doesn’t require a lot of maintenance. This low-maintenance roofing conserves the use of various materials. It reduces landfill waste.
And yes, this flat roofing is hard to ignite and resists strong winds.
Roofers install SPF roofing by spraying a liquid that expands into a foam. The process is quick and error-free. You’ll be delighted with the fact that SPF roofs have no cracks and seams. When it rains, SPF roofs don’t leak.
Over time, water tends to pool over other flat roofing systems. This is not the case with SPF roofing. Other advantages of SPF roofing are the following:
The question, “Why are flat roofs common on commercial buildings?” leads many to think that flat roofs are totally flat. This is actually a misconception. Look at a flat roof and you’ll say that it appears horizontal.
But the truth is, it has a slight pitch. This slight pitch allows water to drain off. If it’s entirely flat, the roof would be prone to moisture problems! Some buildings with newly installed roofs experience leaks because of poor workmanship.
You need a good roofing contractor that can guarantee the correct pitch. If not, water pools when it rains.
We hope that this blog post helped you get a better understanding of flat roofing. As you can see, flat materials are the most useful and cost-effective choices for commercial properties. If it’s time to pick the best roof, re-read this post.
At Miller’s Home Improvement, we help facility owners with their roofing installation needs. We currently install EPDM, TPO, and Torch Down Roofing.
As a licensed contractor, we follow the best standards - regardless of what roofing work you want to be done. Take a look at our projects! Lastly, call us at 248-266-4657 to get a free estimate.